The automatic multipurpose power tool drilling, cutting and shaping machine is used for drilling and cutting and shaping works. This machine will do the drilling work automatically. The rollers are connected to the motor which is used to feed the bar or metal sheet. The rollers are fixed in the metal base.
The movable motor is used to drill the sheet or bar. The feeding length of the bar is programmable. The drilling motor is moved horizontally by means of a moving motor. The drilling and tapping bits can be changed whenever we require. The rollers move the sheet gradually. The stand holds the drilling motor. The control circuit controls the movement of the sheet and the motion of the drilling motor. The power supply is used o provide power to the mechanical unit and electronic unit.
Simple and cost effective, Atlas Copco automatic multipurpose power tool drilling and cutting and shaping units cut costs by reducing machining time in ancillary equipment, or in highly automated special machines. Modular designs allow the units to be easily replaced, transferred to other machines, or combined to form new special-purpose machines.
These units are available in three sizes, LBL25, LBL35 and LBL45, each size covering a speciﬁc diameter range, totally up to 20 mm in steel. The basic units can be ﬁtted with different chucks, twin heads for simultaneous drilling of two holes and attachments for chip removal and cutting.
- Highly dependable – LBL drilling and cutting units feature quick and precise clamping, making them highly dependable.
- Easy to build together – Several holes can be drilled in a single operation since several of these compact units can easily be built together.
- Low noise level – The units have a low noise level as the exhaust air is discharged through silencers inside the protective casing.
- Problem Statement
- Problem Identification
To design and development of MULTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE, A STRUCTURED „hi this designed for the purpose of MULTI-OPERATIONs i.e.DRILLING, CUTTING & SHAPING.
This machine perform multipurpose operation at same time with required speed & this machine is automatic which is controlled or operated by motor which is run with the help of current. This machine is based on the mechanism of whit worth return.
T. model of the multi OPERATIONAL machine is may be used in industries and domestic OPERATION which can perform mechanical operation like drilling. cutting & shaping of a t. metallic as when as wooden model or body.
COMPONENT OF MACHINE
- Bevel gear
- Whitworth mechanism
- Bearing (ball & sliding bearing)
- Rocker arm
- Hacksaw blade
- Tool post
- Drilling chuck
- Drill tool
- Single cutting tool
- Nut & bolt
- Other components
Bevel gears are gears where the axes of the two shafts intersect and the tooth-bearing faces of the gears themselves are conically shaped. Bevel gears are most often mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well. The pitch surface of bevel gears is a cone.
Two important concepts in gearing are pitch surface and pitch angle. The pitch surface of a gear is the imaginary toothless surface that you would have by averaging out the peaks and valleys of the individual teeth. The pitch surface of an ordinary gear is the shape of a cylinder. The pitch angle of a gear is the angle between the face of the pitch surface and the axis.
The most familiar kinds of bevel gears have pitch angles of less than 90 degrees and therefore are cone-shaped. This type of bevel gear is called external because the gear teeth point outward. The pitch surfaces of meshed external bevel gears are coaxial with the gear shafts; the apexes of the two surfaces are at the point of intersection of the shaft axes.
Bevel gears that have pitch angles of greater than ninety degrees have teeth that point inward and are called internal bevel gears.
Bevel gears that have pitch angles of exactly 90 degrees have teeth that point outward parallel with the axis and resemble the points on a crown. That's why this type of bevel gear is called a crown gear.
Miter gears are mating bevel gears with equal numbers of teeth and with axes at right angles.
Skew bevel gears are those for which the corresponding crown gear has teeth that are straight and oblique.
Bevel gears are classified in different types according to geometry:
- Straight bevel gears have conical pitch surface and teeth are straight and tapering towards apex.
- Spiral bevel gears have curved teeth at an angle allowing tooth contact to be gradual and smooth.
- Zerol bevel gears are very similar to a bevel gear only exception is the teeth are curved: the ends of each tooth are coplanar with the axis, but the middle of each tooth is swept circumferentially around the gear. Zerol bevel gears can be thought of as spiral bevel gears, which also have curved teeth, but with a spiral angle of zero, so the ends of the teeth align with the axis.
- Hypoid bevel gears are similar to spiral bevel but the pitch surfaces arehyperbolic and not conical. Pinion can be offset above, or below,the gear centre, thus allowing larger pinion diameter, and longer life and smoother mesh, with additional ratios e.g., 6:1, 8:1, 10:1. In a limiting case of making the "bevel" surface parallel with the axis of rotation, this configuration resembles a worm drive. Hypoid gears were widely used in automobile rear axles.
A.C MOTORTechnical Specification
- Electrical Motor
- Volts – 440
- 3 Phase – 50 Hz.
- KW/HP – HALF
- RPM – 1420
- Ampere – 8.5
- Power consumption- 12-units/ shift
- 3 phase induction motor with 1440 rpm
- Shaft radius = 20 mm
- Required force for slicing the cocnut = 20 kg
- Power required in slicing: [(20*9.81)(2*3.14*.025)(100/60)]*4 = 210w
- Power required for driving the coconut: (20*9.81)(3/60) = 10w
- Total power required = 220w
A bearing is a machine element, which supports another machine element. It permits a relative motion between the contact surfaces, while carrying the load. In this automobile gearbox roller bearings are adopted. The ball or roller bearing consists of an inner race, which is mounted on the shaft or journal, and the outer race, which is carried by the housing or casing. In between the inner and outer race there are balls or rollers. A No. of balls or rollers is used and these are helped at proper distance by retainers so that they do not touch each other. The retainers are this strip and usually in two parts, which are assembled after the ball bearings are used for light loads and roller bearings, are used for heavier loads.
Bearings are classified as
- Depending upon the direction of load to be supported
- Depending upon the nature of contact.
Radial bearing: The loads act perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the moving elements.
Thrust bearing: The load acts along the axis of rotation
Sliding contact bearing: The sliding takes place along the surface of contact between the moving elements and fixed elements. The sliding contact bearings are also known as plain bearings.
Rolling contact bearings: The steel balls or rollers are interposed between the moving and fixed elements the balls offer rolling friction at two points for each ball or roller.
A shaft is a rotating element, which is used to transmit power from one place to another. The power is delivered to the shaft by some tangential force and the resultant torque or tensional moment set up within the shaft permits the power to be transferred to various machines linked up to the shaft, in order to transfer the power from one shaft to another the various members such as pulleys, gears etc, are installed on it. This member causes the shaft to bending. In other words we may say that a shaft is used for the transmission of torque and bending. The various members are mounted on the shaft by means of keys or splines.
- Materials Used
- Manufacturing Technique
The material used for ordinary shafts is mild steel where high strength is required. An alloy steel such as nickel, nickel chromium or chrome vanadium steel is used.
Shafts are generally formed by hot rolling and finished to size by cold awing or turning.
There are two types of shafts:
- Transmission shaft
- Machine shaft
- Standard Size Of Shaft
- Standard Length Of The Shaft
- Stress In Shaft
25 mm to 60 mm with 5 mm step
60 mm to 110 mm with 10 mm step
110 mm to 140 mm with 15 mm step
140 mm to 500 mm with 20 mm step
Shear stress due to transmission of torque. Combined torsion and bending. Bending stress due to the force acting up on the machine element like gears, pulleys etc. As well as due to the weight of the shaft itself.
WORKING OF THE MODEL:
In the conceptual model of “Multi-Functional operating machine” we are giving supply to the main shaft ,as we move along the axis of shaft we have mounted a pair of bevel gears, through the pinion shaft we are giving drive to drill shaft through belt-pulley arrangement, we have installed the stepped pulley in the arrangement therefore we can made the speed variation. Now again as we move along the axis of main-shaft further we have again used the bevel gear arrangement to give the drive to grinding center. As we can see that the scotch yoke mechanism is directly fabricated to the main shaft and have same angular velocity as that of main-shaft.
- High torque output with a small cylinder size
- Fewer moving parts
- Smoother operation
- multi operations are performed at one time
- our machine is used return stroke (whit worth) mechanism
- the return stroke of shaper machine is utilized as cutting operation
- all operation is performed by only one motor
- size is compact therefore it require .s space
- lime saving
- Less man power is required
- low manufacturing & maintenance cost
- Rapid wear of the slot in the yoke caused by sliding friction and high contact pressures.
- Increased heat loss during combustion due to extended dwell at top dead center offsets any constant volume combustion improvements in real engines.
- Lesser percentage of the time spent at bottom dead center reducing blow down time for two stroke engines, when compared with a conventional piston and crank shaft mechanism.
- This setup is most commonly used in control valve actuators in high pressure oil andgas pipelines
- It has been used in various internal combustion engines, such as the Bourke engine, SyTech engine, and many hot air engines and steam engines.
- It is also used in multipurpose machines and I.C engines.
The scotch yoke mechanism is made and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Its motion characteristics are studied. It is concluded that this mechanism is a good choice to convert rotating motion into reciprocating motion because of fewer moving part sand smoother operation. It can be used in direct injection engines like diesel engines, hot air engines. In this project report we provide an overview of the issues concerning different aspects of multipurpose machine using scotch yoke mechanism .The project report focus on the principle of scotch yoke mechanism, type of tooling and machining parameters and process performance measure, which include cutting speed, depth of cut,material removalrate with different type of equipments which can be run simultaneously and fabricate the work piece In multipurpose machine has been presented . the presented results can help to plan the machining of work piece with expected tolerance. The following major conclusions may be drawn from the present project report.
Multipurpose machine is derived from turning lathe which has been a wellestablished industrial processes offering attractive capabilities for handling work piece of various length to be used at micro level.